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Article

Italian, 11th century, male.

Active at the beginning of the 9th century.

Sculptor, architect.

Nicolaus sculpted the low reliefs in the church of S Maria in Valle, Porclaneta, near Rosciolo, a church that he himself built.

Article

Italian, 11th century, male.

Born in Lombardy.

Painter, sculptor.

Nivardus worked in 1026 for the monastery and church of St-Benoît-sur-Loire.

Article

French, 11th century, male.

Active in St-Julien-de-Tours.

Painter. Religious subjects.

A Benedictine monk, in 1026 he painted scenes of the Apocalypse and the Life of Saint Peter in the church of St-Benoît-sur-Loire.

Article

French, 11th century, male.

Born 985, in Sens.

Sculptor, goldsmith.

A monk in the monastery of St-Pierre-le-Vif, Odoranne fashioned a crucifix and reliquaries.

Article

British, 11th century, male.

Died 1099.

Illuminator.

A native of Normandy, Osmund went to England with William the Conqueror. He moved to the episcopal seat of Salisbury, where he founded a library in which he was actively engaged in calligraphy; he himself wrote a Ordinal...

Article

French, 10th – 11th century, male.

Active in St-Omer at the end of the 10th and at the beginning of the 11th century.

Miniaturist.

Article

Chinese, 11th century, male.

Born 1007, in Luling (Jiangxi); died 1072.

Art theorist.

Ouyang Xiu was a famous statesman, known as a man of letters and an aesthetician. As with many men of letters, his writings turn to art criticism when dealing with the many inscriptions he selected for the ...

Article

Qasir  

Arabic School, 11th century, male.

Active in the middle of the 11th century.

Painter.

Qasir is known to have worked in Qasir and Cairo.

Article

Qian Yi  

Chinese, 10th – 11th century, male.

Born in Hangzhou (Zhejiang).

Painter. Landscapes, flowers.

Qian Yi painted flowers, landscapes and arhats (disciples of the Buddha). After taking the triennial examinations at the capital, he was awarded the title jinshi (scholar presented to the court) during the reign of the Song Emperor Zhenzong (998-...

Article

Raijo  

Japanese, 11th – 12th century, male.

Active in Nara.

Born 1044; died 1119.

Sculptor.

Raijo was probably the son of Kakujo (died in 1077) and therefore the grandson of the great sculptor Jocho (died in 1057). He was a dai busshi (master sculptor) in the Kofuku-ji Temple in Nara and in ...

Article

French, 11th century, male.

Sculptor. Figures. Low reliefs.

Nîmes (Mus. Lapidaire): Warriors (low relief)

Article

French, 11th century, male.

Active in Rheims in 1070.

Glass painter.

Rogerus I created the windows of the monastery church of St-Hubert in the Ardennes.

Article

Italian, 11th century, male.

Sculptor.

Romualdus sculpted a marble pulpit for Canossa Cathedral between 1078 and 1089.

Article

Rustico  

Italian, 11th century, male.

Active in Florence in 1066.

Painter.

Florentine School.

Article

Chinese, 11th century, male.

Born 1031; died 1095.

Art lover, art critic.

After a brilliant career as an official, diplomat and soldier, Shen Gua wrote a monumental work of scholarship, the Address of the Stream of Dreams ( Mengqi Bitan), a veritable Summa of human knowledge encompassing fields as varied as history, politics, music, astrology and astronomy, arts and letters, mathematics, technology and archaeology. This work of genius is not merely a compilation of the works of others but the fruit of original creative thought by an observer, inventor and philosopher. Book 17 is devoted to painting and calligraphy and contains a famous passage in which Sheng Gua comes to the defence of pictorial creation as an autonomous art free from all vulgar concerns of likeness or verisimilitude. ‘The wonderful parts (or the mystery) of calligraphy and painting must be realised by the soul; they can hardly be discovered in mere forms,’ says Sirén. ‘Those who look at paintings are always able to point out faults of form, of likeness, of design and colouring, but I have seldom found people who have penetrated into the mysterious reason and depth of creative activity.... This is because his (the artist Wang Wei’s) creative activity and his reason resided in the spiritual part of his nature and because he grasped to the highest degree the idea (inspiration of Heaven). But this is hard to explain to common people.’...

Article

Chinese, 11th century, male.

Active in Sichuan during the second half of the 11th century.

Painter. Landscapes.

Song dynasty.

Shuang Goulong held the official rank zhitou at the Imperial Painting Academy during the reign of Emperor Shanzong (1068-1085).

Taipei (National Palace Mus.): River Land­scape with Sailing Boats...

Article

German, 11th century, male.

Active at Tegernsee (Bavaria) in 1031.

Illuminator.

Article

Sigo  

French, 11th century, male.

Active at Fougères in 1055.

Sculptor, illuminator (?).

Sigo was a monk.

Article

Chinese, 11th century, male.

Born in Xingzhou (Hebei).

Painter. Landscapes.

Song Chu painted landscapes in the style of Guo Xi (c. 1020-1100).

Article

Song di  

Chinese, 11th century, male.

Born in Luoyang (Henan).

Painter. Landscapes.

Song Di painted landscapes in the style of Li Cheng (active in about 960-990). He was perhaps the first artist to have painted the famous scene of the confluence of the Xiao and Xiang rivers....