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Article

Italian, 11th century, male.

Calligrapher, illuminator.

According to D'Agincourt, Johannes was a priest who wrote and illuminated an Exultet, a missal in two volumes in the possession of the Barberini Library, Rome. We know that he was a priest from an inscription on the side of the second volume. ...

Article

Kakujo  

Japanese, 10th – 11th century, male.

Died 1077.

Sculptor.

Late Heian period.

Kakujo was the son of the famous sculptor Jocho (d. 1057). He was one of the sculptors who worked for the Fujiwara family and was granted the title Hogen (eye of the law, a title of the Buddhist clergy bestowed as an honorific title on certain artists) in ...

Article

Kakuyu  

Japanese, 11th – 12th century, male.

Born 1053; died 1140.

Painter.

Late Heian period.

A monk-painter of the Tendai Buddhist sect, Kakuyu was the son of Minamoto no Takakuni. He was one of the best-known painters of his generation and is traditionally believed to be the author of ...

Article

Kosho  

Japanese, 10th – 11th century, male.

Activec.990-1020.

Sculptor.

Kosho was one of Japan’s greatest sculptors and created a number of important works for the imperial court on commissions from his patron, Fujiwara Michinaga. His style seems eminently suited to the aristocratic taste of the Hejan period, and it was he who originated the ...

Article

Leo  

Italian, 11th century, male.

Calligrapher.

Leo wrote two volumes of Homilies that are now in Monte Cassino and painted two miniatures in them, one of himself and one depicting Archpriest Johannes, for whom they were written.

Article

Leone  

Italian, 11th – 12th century, male.

Born probably in the 11th century, in Amalfi; died possibly in the 12th century.

Miniaturist.

A Benedictine monk, in 1072 Leone wrote in Monte Cassino Various Homilies, which he illuminated with intricately painted miniatures, portraits and biblical scenes. He is thought to be the same Leo who was Cardinal Archbishop of Ostia and secretary to Pope Urban II, and who died in ...

Article

Chinese, 11th century, male.

Born 1040, in Shucheng (Anhui Province); died 1106.

Painter. Religious subjects, figures, animals.

Better known by his style name Li Longmian, which he adopted after the name of a mountain near his native village, Li Gonglin came from an important Jiangnan family. His father, a senior official who had resigned his post, had an important collection of antiques, and it was through studying these that Longmian gained the best of his training. In his turn, he too would become highly skilled in assessing antiques. He started his career in administration while young and would remain in it for thirty years until he was struck down by partial paralysis towards the close of his life....

Article

LI Tang  

Chinese, 11th – 12th century, male.

Born c. 1050, in Heyang (Henan); died after 1130.

Painter.

Nothing seems farther from a Northern Song (960-1127) than a Southern Song (1127-1279) landscape: the Northern landscapes are balanced and monumental, attaining the height of their glory with Fan Kuan (mid-10th century), while their Southern counterparts, perfected by Ma Yuan and Xia Gui (active ...

Article

LI Wei  

Chinese, 11th century, male.

Activec.1050-c.1090.

Born in Qiantang (Zhejiang).

Painter. Landscapes.

Li Wei was the son-in-law of the Song emperor Renzong (1032-1063). A senior civil servant and tutor to the young emperor Huizong, he pursued calligraphy and painting as pastimes. He painted mainly bamboos but destroyed most of his works. The Boston Museum has in its collection ...

Article

LI Zhi  

Chinese, 11th century, male.

Active during the first half of the 9th century.

Born in Kaifeng (Henan).

Painter. Landscapes, flowers.

Article

Chinese, 11th century, male.

Active at the end of the 9th century.

Born in Kaifeng (Henan).

Painter. Animals, flowers.

Li Zhongxuan was a eunuch in service at the palace. He was a painter of flowers and birds.

Taipei (National Palace Mus.): Plants in Flower and Butterflies...

Article

Liu Cai  

Chinese, 11th century, male.

Active in Kaifeng (Henan Province).

Painter. Animals.

Liu Cai worked during the reign of Emperor Song Shenzong (1068-1085). He painted fish as living creatures, moving gracefully under water.

Beijing (Palace Mus.): Fish and Flowers Fallen on Water (handscroll, attributed...

Article

Chinese, 11th century, male.

Active at the end of the 11th century.

Born in Jianzhou (Sichuan).

Painter. Landscapes.

Liu Jing painted bamboos and was also known as a friend of Wang Anshi (1021-1086) and Mi Fu (1051-1107).

Article

Chinese, 11th century, male.

Born c. 1020, in Kaifeng (Henan).

Painter. Figures, animals, flowers.

Liu Yongnian belonged to the Song imperial family and became a high-ranking military officer. As a painter, he was known for his figures and his flower paintings.

Taipei (National Palace Mus.): ...

Article

Martin  

Spanish, 11th century, male.

Miniaturist.

Between 1056 and 1086 he enriched with miniatures two books of Commentaries on the Apocalypse by Beato de Liebana.

Article

Spanish, 11th – 12th century, male.

Active at the end of the 11th century and at the beginning of the 12th century.

Born to a family originally from the Berga region.

Painter.

This artist painted the frescoes in the Mozarabic church of S Quirce that are preserved in the museums of Solsona and Barcelona. Although some experts have attributed to him the decorations of the apse of the cupola of Sta Maria Esterri in Aneu, J. Lassaigne does not think they are his work. Nor does he think that the paintings of S Pedro, Burgal should be attributed to him. The resemblances between these works can almost certainly be explained by the existence of a school centred on the Master. He gives new life to the scenes he depicts and renders daily life simply and sometimes with humour. In contrast with the Master of Tahull, he does not comply with the strict rules of Byzantine art, and he allows his individuality, feeling, and even imagination to shine through. His colours no longer simply follow the stylistic criteria of a traditional iconography, but are far more natural....

Article

Menas  

11th century, male.

Active in 1000.

Miniaturist.

Menas painted a number of illuminated miniatures in the martyrology written for Emperor Basil II.

Article

MI Fu  

Chinese, 11th century, male.

Born 1051, in Xiangyang (Hubei); died 1107, in Huaiyang (Jiangsi).

Painter. Landscapes.

A celebrated scholar, calligrapher, painter and aesthete, Mi Fu was one of those personalities who have had a fundamental influence not only on the development of Chinese painting, but more generally on the formation of the tastes of the Chinese man in the street. The importance of his role has nothing in common with his actual painting. He was of a perceptive, passionate and tenacious nature and brought a new aesthetic into art, becoming the flamboyant mouthpiece for a conception of pictorial activity from which would subsequently develop the painting of the literati, the ...

Article

11th century, male.

Activec.1000.

Miniaturist.

This artist collaborated in painting the miniatures of the Martyrology ( Menologium) written for Emperor Basil II.

Article

Spanish, 11th century, male.

Sculptor (ivory).

The Museum of Burgos has a casket by this artist, dated 1026.